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Only fragments of the original Sanskrit form of this work exist, but translations or adaptations exist in Tamil, [14] Lao, [15] Thai [16] and Old Javanese. In the 10th century Ibn al-Nadim compiled a catalogue of books the "Fihrist" in Baghdad. He noted that the Sassanid kings of Iran enjoyed "evening tales and fables". He also writes disparagingly of the collection's literary quality, observing that "it is truly a coarse book, without warmth in the telling". In the s, the Iraqi scholar Safa Khulusi suggested on internal rather than historical evidence that the Persian writer Ibn al-Muqaffa' may have been responsible for the first Arabic translation of the frame story and some of the Persian stories later incorporated into the Nights.

This would place genesis of the collection in the 8th century. In the midth century, the scholar Nabia Abbott found a document with a few lines of an Arabic work with the title The Book of the Tale of a Thousand Nights , dating from the 9th century. This is the earliest known surviving fragment of the Nights. Some of the earlier Persian tales may have survived within the Arabic tradition altered such that Arabic Muslim names and new locations were substituted for pre-Islamic Persian ones, but it is also clear that whole cycles of Arabic tales were eventually added to the collection and apparently replaced most of the Persian materials.

One such cycle of Arabic tales centres around a small group of historical figures from 9th-century Baghdad, including the caliph Harun al-Rashid died , his vizier Jafar al-Barmaki d. Another cluster is a body of stories from late medieval Cairo in which are mentioned persons and places that date to as late as the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Two main Arabic manuscript traditions of the Nights are known: The Syrian tradition includes the oldest manuscripts; these versions are also much shorter and include fewer tales.

It is represented in print by the so-called Calcutta I — and most notably by the Leiden edition , which is based above all on the Galland manuscript. It is believed to be the purest expression of the style of the mediaeval Arabian Nights. Texts of the Egyptian tradition emerge later and contain many more tales of much more varied content; a much larger number of originally independent tales have been incorporated into the collection over the centuries, most of them after the Galland manuscript was written, [37] and were being included as late as in the 18th and 19th centuries, perhaps in order to attain the eponymous number of nights.

The final product of this tradition, the so-called Zotenberg Egyptian Recension , does contain nights and is reflected in print, with slight variations, by the editions known as the Bulaq and the Macnaghten or Calcutta II — All extant substantial versions of both recensions share a small common core of tales: The texts of the Syrian recension do not contain much beside that core.

It is debated which of the Arabic recensions is more "authentic" and closer to the original: The first European version — was translated into French by Antoine Galland from an Arabic text of the Syrian recension and other sources.

He wrote that he heard them from a Syrian Christian storyteller from Aleppo , a Maronite scholar whom he called "Hanna Diab. As scholars were looking for the presumed "complete" and "original" form of the Nights, they naturally turned to the more voluminous texts of the Egyptian recension, which soon came to be viewed as the "standard version".

The first translations of this kind, such as that of Edward Lane , , were bowdlerized. Burton's original 10 volumes were followed by a further six seven in the Baghdad Edition and perhaps others entitled The Supplemental Nights to the Thousand Nights and a Night , which were printed between and It has, however, been criticized for its "archaic language and extravagant idiom" and "obsessive focus on sexuality" and has even been called an "eccentric ego-trip " and a "highly personal reworking of the text".

Later versions of the Nights include that of the French doctor J. Mardrus , issued from to It was translated into English by Powys Mathers , and issued in Like Payne's and Burton's texts, it is based on the Egyptian recension and retains the erotic material, indeed expanding on it, but it has been criticized for inaccuracy. Mahdi argued that this version is the earliest extant one a view that is largely accepted today and that it reflects most closely a "definitive" coherent text ancestral to all others that he believed to have existed during the Mamluk period a view that remains contentious.

In a new English translation was published by Penguin Classics in three volumes. It is translated by Malcolm C.

Lyons and Ursula Lyons with introduction and annotations by Robert Irwin. It contains, in addition to the standard text of Nights, the so-called "orphan stories" of Aladdin and Ali Baba as well as an alternative ending to The seventh journey of Sindbad from Antoine Galland 's original French. As the translator himself notes in his preface to the three volumes, "116o attempt has been made to superimpose on the translation changes that would be needed to 'rectify' Moreover, it streamlines somewhat and has cuts.

In this sense it is not, as claimed, a complete translation. Scholars have assembled a timeline concerning the publication history of The Nights: The One Thousand and One Nights and various tales within it make use of many innovative literary techniques , which the storytellers of the tales rely on for increased drama, suspense, or other emotions. An early example of the frame story , or framing device , is employed in the One Thousand and One Nights , in which the character Scheherazade narrates a set of tales most often fairy tales to the Sultan Shahriyar over many nights.

Many of Scheherazade's tales are also frame stories, such as the Tale of Sindbad the Seaman and Sindbad the Landsman being a collection of adventures related by Sindbad the Seaman to Sindbad the Landsman. An early example of the " story within a story " technique can be found in the One Thousand and One Nights , which can be traced back to earlier Persian and Indian storytelling traditions, most notably the Panchatantra of ancient Sanskrit literature.

The Nights , however, improved on the Panchatantra in several ways, particularly in the way a story is introduced.

In the Panchatantra , stories are introduced as didactic analogies, with the frame story referring to these stories with variants of the phrase "If you're not careful, that which happened to the louse and the flea will happen to you.

The general story is narrated by an unknown narrator, and in this narration the stories are told by Scheherazade. In most of Scheherazade's narrations there are also stories narrated, and even in some of these, there are some other stories.

Within the "Sinbad the Sailor" story itself, the protagonist Sinbad the Sailor narrates the stories of his seven voyages to Sinbad the Porter. In yet another tale Scheherazade narrates, " The Fisherman and the Jinni ", the "Tale of the Wazir and the Sage Duban " is narrated within it, and within that there are three more tales narrated.

Dramatic visualization is "the representing of an object or character with an abundance of descriptive detail, or the mimetic rendering of gestures and dialogue in such a way as to make a given scene 'visual' or imaginatively present to an audience". This technique dates back to the One Thousand and One Nights. A common theme in many Arabian Nights tales is fate and destiny. The Italian filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini observed: So a chain of anomalies is set up. And the more logical, tightly knit, essential this chain is, the more beautiful the tale.

By 'beautiful' I mean vital, absorbing and exhilarating. The chain of anomalies always tends to lead back to normality. The end of every tale in The One Thousand and One Nights consists of a 'disappearance' of destiny, which sinks back to the somnolence of daily life The protagonist of the stories is in fact destiny itself. Though invisible, fate may be considered a leading character in the One Thousand and One Nights. Early examples of the foreshadowing technique of repetitive designation , now known as " Chekhov's gun ", occur in the One Thousand and One Nights , which contains "repeated references to some character or object which appears insignificant when first mentioned but which reappears later to intrude suddenly in the narrative".

Another early foreshadowing technique is formal patterning , "the organization of the events, actions and gestures which constitute a narrative and give shape to a story; when done well, formal patterning allows the audience the pleasure of discerning and anticipating the structure of the plot as it unfolds". This technique also dates back to the One Thousand and One Nights. Another form of foreshadowing is the self-fulfilling prophecy , which dates back to the story of Krishna in ancient Sanskrit literature , and Oedipus or the death of Heracles in the plays of Sophocles.

A variation of this device is the self-fulfilling dream, which dates back to medieval Arabic literature or the dreams of Joseph and his conflicts with his brothers, in the Hebrew Bible. Several tales in the One Thousand and One Nights use this device to foreshadow what is going to happen, as a special form of literary prolepsis.

A notable example is "The Ruined Man who Became Rich Again through a Dream", in which a man is told in his dream to leave his native city of Baghdad and travel to Cairo , where he will discover the whereabouts of some hidden treasure. The man travels there and experiences misfortune, ending up in jail, where he tells his dream to a police officer. The officer mocks the idea of foreboding dreams and tells the protagonist that he himself had a dream about a house with a courtyard and fountain in Baghdad where treasure is buried under the fountain.

The man recognizes the place as his own house and, after he is released from jail, he returns home and digs up the treasure. In other words, the foreboding dream not only predicted the future, but the dream was the cause of its prediction coming true.

Another variation of the self-fulfilling prophecy can be seen in "The Tale of Attaf", where Harun al-Rashid consults his library the House of Wisdom , reads a random book, "falls to laughing and weeping and dismisses the faithful vizier " Ja'far ibn Yahya from sight. Ja'afar, "disturbed and upset flees Baghdad and plunges into a series of adventures in Damascus , involving Attaf and the woman whom Attaf eventually marries.

In other words, it was Harun's reading of the book that provoked the adventures described in the book to take place. This is an early example of reverse causation. In the 12th century, this tale was translated into Latin by Petrus Alphonsi and included in his Disciplina Clericalis , [61] alongside the " Sinbad the Sailor " story cycle.

Leitwortstil is 'the purposeful repetition of words' in a given literary piece that "usually expresses a motif or theme important to the given story". This device occurs in the One Thousand and One Nights , which binds several tales in a story cycle. The storytellers of the tales relied on this technique "to shape the constituent members of their story cycles into a coherent whole. Thematic patterning is "the distribution of recurrent thematic concepts and moralistic motifs among the various incidents and frames of a story.

In a skillfully crafted tale, thematic patterning may be arranged so as to emphasize the unifying argument or salient idea which disparate events and disparate frames have in common".

This technique also dates back to the One Thousand and One Nights and earlier. Several different variants of the " Cinderella " story, which has its origins in the Egyptian story of Rhodopis , appear in the One Thousand and One Nights , including "The Second Shaykh's Story", "The Eldest Lady's Tale" and "Abdallah ibn Fadil and His Brothers", all dealing with the theme of a younger sibling harassed by two jealous elders.

In some of these, the siblings are female, while in others they are male. One of the tales, "Judar and His Brethren", departs from the happy endings of previous variants and reworks the plot to give it a tragic ending instead, with the younger brother being poisoned by his elder brothers.

The Nights contain many examples of sexual humour. Some of this borders on satire , as in the tale called "Ali with the Large Member" which pokes fun at obsession with human penis size. The literary device of the unreliable narrator was used in several fictional medieval Arabic tales of the One Thousand and One Nights. Seven viziers attempt to save his life by narrating seven stories to prove the unreliability of women, and the courtesan responds back by narrating a story to prove the unreliability of viziers.

An example of the murder mystery [67] and suspense thriller genres in the collection, with multiple plot twists [68] and detective fiction elements [69] was " The Three Apples ", also known as Hikayat al-sabiyya 'l-maqtula "The Tale of the Murdered Young Woman" , [70] one of the tales narrated by Scheherazade in the One Thousand and One Nights. In this tale, Harun al-Rashid comes to possess a chest, which, when opened, contains the body of a young woman. Thus the mystery is solved. Another Nights tale with crime fiction elements was "The Hunchback's Tale" story cycle which, unlike "The Three Apples", was more of a suspenseful comedy and courtroom drama rather than a murder mystery or detective fiction.

The story is set in a fictional China and begins with a hunchback, the emperor's favourite comedian , being invited to dinner by a tailor couple. The hunchback accidentally chokes on his food from laughing too hard and the couple, fearful that the emperor will be furious, take his body to a Jewish doctor 's clinic and leave him there.

This leads to the next tale in the cycle, the "Tale of the Jewish Doctor", where the doctor accidentally trips over the hunchback's body, falls down the stairs with him, and finds him dead, leading him to believe that the fall had killed him. The doctor then dumps his body down a chimney, and this leads to yet another tale in the cycle, which continues with twelve tales in total, leading to all the people involved in this incident finding themselves in a courtroom , all making different claims over how the hunchback had died.

Haunting is used as a plot device in gothic fiction and horror fiction , as well as modern paranormal fiction. Legends about haunted houses have long appeared in literature. Horror fiction elements are also found in "The City of Brass" tale, which revolves around a ghost town. The horrific nature of Scheherazade 's situation is magnified in Stephen King 's Misery , in which the protagonist is forced to write a novel to keep his captor from torturing and killing him.

The influence of the Nights on modern horror fiction is certainly discernible in the work of H. As a child, he was fascinated by the adventures recounted in the book, and he attributes some of his creations to his love of the Nights. Several stories within the One Thousand and One Nights feature early science fiction elements. One example is "The Adventures of Bulukiya", where the protagonist Bulukiya's quest for the herb of immortality leads him to explore the seas, journey to Paradise and to Hell , and travel across the cosmos to different worlds much larger than his own world, anticipating elements of galactic science fiction; [76] along the way, he encounters societies of djinn , [77] mermaids , talking serpents , talking trees, and other forms of life.

In another Nights tale, "Abdullah the Fisherman and Abdullah the Merman", the protagonist Abdullah the Fisherman gains the ability to breathe underwater and discovers an underwater society that is portrayed as an inverted reflection of society on land, in that the underwater society follows a form of primitive communism where concepts like money and clothing do not exist.

Other Arabian Nights tales also depict Amazon societies dominated by women, lost ancient technologies, advanced ancient civilizations that went astray, and catastrophes which overwhelmed them. Characters occasionally provide poetry in certain settings, covering many uses. However, pleading, beseeching and praising the powerful is the most significant. In a typical example, expressing feelings of happiness to oneself from Night , Prince Qamar Al-Zaman, [85] standing outside the castle, wants to inform Queen Bodour of his arrival.

He wraps his ring in a paper and hands it to the servant who delivers it to the Queen. When she opens it and sees the ring, joy conquers her, and out of happiness she chants this poem Arabic: And I have regretted the separation of our companionship:: You cry out of joy and out of sadness.

Long, long have I bewailed the sev'rance of our loves, With tears that from my lids streamed down like burning rain And vowed that, if the days deign reunite us two, My lips should never speak of severance again: Joy hath o'erwhelmed me so that, for the very stress Of that which gladdens me to weeping I am fain. Tears are become to you a habit, O my eyes, So that ye weep as well for gladness as for pain.

The influence of the versions of The Nights on world literature is immense. Writers as diverse as Henry Fielding to Naguib Mahfouz have alluded to the collection by name in their own works. Lovecraft , Marcel Proust , A. Byatt and Angela Carter. Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin , Sinbad and Ali Baba. Part of its popularity may have sprung from improved standards of historical and geographical knowledge.

The marvelous beings and events typical of fairy tales seem less incredible if they are set further "long ago" or farther "far away"; this process culminates in the fantasy world having little connection, if any, to actual times and places. Several elements from Arabian mythology are now common in modern fantasy , such as genies , bahamuts , magic carpets , magic lamps, etc. Frank Baum proposed writing a modern fairy tale that banished stereotypical elements, he included the genie as well as the dwarf and the fairy as stereotypes to go.

There is little evidence that the Nights was particularly treasured in the Arab world. It is rarely mentioned in lists of popular literature and few preth-century manuscripts of the collection exist. According to Robert Irwin, "Even today, with the exception of certain writers and academics, the Nights is regarded with disdain in the Arabic world.

Its stories are regularly denounced as vulgar, improbable, childish and, above all, badly written. Although the first known translation into a European language only appeared in , it is possible that the Nights began exerting its influence on Western culture much earlier. Echoes in Giovanni Sercambi 's Novelle and Ariosto 's Orlando furioso suggest that the story of Shahriyar and Shahzaman was also known.

The modern fame of the Nights derives from the first known European translation by Antoine Galland, which appeared in According to Robert Irwin , Galland "played so large a part in discovering the tales, in popularizing them in Europe and in shaping what would come to be regarded as the canonical collection that, at some risk of hyperbole and paradox, he has been called the real author of the Nights.

This fashion began with the publication of Madame d'Aulnoy 's Histoire d'Hypolite in D'Aulnoy's book has a remarkably similar structure to the Nights , with the tales told by a female narrator.

At the same time, some French writers began to parody the style and concoct far-fetched stories in superficially Oriental settings. They call Dionysus, Orotalt ; and Aphrodite , Alilat. Allat was identified as the mother of the gods by a Nabataean inscription. I, calls her Alilat and equates her with the Assyrian goddess Mylitta and the Persian goddess Mitra.

Strabo stated the Arabs worshipped Dionysus and Zeus. Origen stated they worshipped Dionysus and Urania. The Hejaz region specifically was home to three important shrines, one located in Ta'if was dedicated to Al-Lat , another in Nakhla was dedicated to Al-'Uzza, and the other in Al-Qudayd was dedicated to Manat. Various other deities were venerated in the area by specific tribes. For example, the god Sa'd was venerated by the tribe of Kinanah although he also received worship by the Arab nomads around Palmyra.

Suwa is an important god of the Banu Hudhayl tribe. Apparently, animal sacrifice was also practiced. According to the Book of Idols, animals such as camels and sheep would be sacrificed before the deity, often performed on an altar. Both tribes were devout worshippers of the goddess Manat. The civilizations of South Arabia had the most developed pantheon in the Arabian peninsula. Anbay was an oracular god of Qataban and also the spokesman of Amm. Hawkam was invoked alongside Anbay as gods of "command and decision" and his name is derived from the root word "to be wise".

Each kingdom's central temple was the focus of worship for the main god and would be the destination for an annual pilgrimage, with regional temples dedicated to a local manifestation of the main god. The main deity of the Nabataeans in northern Arabia was Dushara Arabic: The meaning of his name is not clear as there are no definite interpretations of it. John Healey speculated his name to mean "The lord of Shara[t] mountain range. She was the protectress of the city and also of love and immortality.

He was the only truly nomadic god of the Nabataean religion. According to Nabataean inscription, he did not drink wine. Manat was another Nabatean goddess and was identified with the Greek goddess Nemesis.

She was the goddess of fate and justice. Within the Nabataean kingdom, the place she is most often mentioned is Hegra however there is no direct portrayal of her. In some of the inscriptions, she is linked with Dushara in cursing and fining those who violate the terms of use of the tombs and do not observe the rules, respectively. In two of these inscriptions she is linked with her Qaysha which according to various interpretations might be referring to another deity or an object.

Al-lat was another Nabatean goddess who was probably identified with Athena and Tyche. An image of her containing elements of both human and block form exists at 'Ain Shellaleh in er-Rumm along with an inscription which describes her as the goddess of Bosra.

Three inscriptions mentioning her exist in Salkhad. However, her name isn't recorded anywhere in Bosra or Petra. Only a single bust of her near the Arched Gate of Petra testifies her existence in the capital. An inscription in Hegra on a tomb mentions her as cursing those who violate the terms of its use. In the same inscription where Al-lat is mentioned, a deity named Hubul is also mentioned.

Jane Taylor takes this deity to be a god of divination. This is the only place outside South Arabia where a name similar to that of Hubal is mentioned. Maxime Rodinson suggests that the Meccan god Hubal may have been of Nabataean origin. A god called al-Kutba' is mentioned in the inscriptions of these people.

Devotion to the god is mentioned in inscriptions in Wadi Rum where Kutba is represented as a baetyl alongside al-'Uzza.

The worship of the Syrian god Baalshamin was imported from Hauran. The Edomite god Qos was also worshipped by Nabataeans, as visible from inscriptions at Khirbet et-Tannur. A Greek inscription at Siq mentions one of her priests.

Greek papyrus dates to 2nd century A. Petra has many "sacred high places" which include altars that have usually been interpreted as places of human sacrifice, although, since the s, an alternative theory that they are "exposure platforms" for placing the corpses of the deceased as part of a funerary ritual has been put forward.

However, there is, in fact, little evidence for either proposition. The Aramaic stele inscription discovered by Charles Hubert in at Tayma mentions the introduction of a new god called Salm of hgm into the city's pantheon being permitted by three local gods - Salm of Mahram who was the chief god, Shingala and Ashira.

The name Salm means "image" or "idol". An inscribed block found alongside it shows a priest worshipping an altar surmounted with a bull's head, with the winged sun-disc, a crescent and Venus shown above them.

Von Klaus Beyer and Alasdair Livingstone took these to be astral symbols of the triad and Sin to be a part of Sengalla, thus concluding him to be a lunar god while seeing Salm as a solar god and Ashima as Venus.

Religious worship amongst the Qedarites , an ancient tribal confederation that was probably subsumed into Nabatea around the 2nd century AD, was centered around a polytheistic system in which women rose to prominence.

Divine images of the gods and goddesses worshipped by Qedarite Arabs, as noted in Assyrian inscriptions, included representations of Atarsamain , Nuha , Ruda , Dai, Abirillu and Atarquruma. The female guardian of these idols, usually the reigning queen, served as a priestess apkallatu , in Assyrian texts who communed with the other world.

In addition, they also refer to Ruda being responsible for all things good and bad. The Midianites , a people referred to in the Book of Genesis and located in north-western Arabia, may have worshipped Yahweh. Abgal cognate with the sumerian ab. The god al-Kutba' is mentioned in Lihyanite inscriptions as well. The Dilmun civilization, which existed along the Persian Gulf coast and Bahrain until the 6th century BC, worshipped a pair of deities, Inzak and Meskilak. In the subsequent Greco-Roman period, there is evidence that the worship of non-indigenous deities was brought to the region by merchants and visitors.

The Bedouin were introduced to Meccan ritualistic practices as they frequented settled towns of the Hejaz during the four months of the "holy truce", the first three of which were devoted to religious observance, while the fourth was set aside for trade.

The Bedouins had a code of honour which Fazlur Rahman Malik states may be regarded as their religious ethics. This code encompassed women, bravery, hospitality, honouring one's promises and pacts, and vengeance.

They believed that the ghost of a slain person would cry out from the grave until their thirst for blood was quenched. Practices such as killing of infant girls were often regarded as having religious sanction.

Bedouin religious experience also included an apparently indigenous cult of ancestors. A thriving community of Jewish tribes existed in pre-Islamic Arabia and included both sedentary and nomadic communities. Jews had migrated into Arabia from Roman times onwards.

There is evidence that Jewish converts in the Hejaz were regarded as Jews by other Jews and non-Jews alike and have sought advice from Babylonian rabbis on matters of attire and kosher food.

The key role played by Jews in the trade and markets of the Hejaz meant that market day for the week was the day preceding the Jewish Sabbath. Jewish agriculturalists lived in the region of Eastern Arabia. The main areas of Christian influence in Arabia were on the north eastern and north western borders and in what was to become Yemen in the south.

The third area of Christian influence was on the north eastern borders where the Lakhmids , a client tribe of the Sassanians , adopted Nestorianism , being the form of Christianity having the most influence in the Sassanian Empire. Sohar was the central city of the diocese. In Nejd , in the centre of the peninsula, there is evidence of members of two tribes, Kindah and Taghlib , converting to Christianity in the 6th century. However, in the Hejaz in the west, whilst there is evidence of the presence of Christianity, it is not thought to have been significant amongst the indigenous population of the area.

Arabicized Christian names were fairly common among pre-Islamic Arabians, which has been attributed to the influence that Syrianized Christian Arabs had on bedouins of the peninsula for several centuries before the rise of Islam. Neal Robinson, based on verses in the Quran, believes that some Arab Christians may have held unorthodox beliefs such as the worshipping of a divine triad of God the father, Jesus the Son and Mary the Mother.

Hawting and Sidney H. Griffith , cast doubt on the historicity or reliability of such references in the Quran. Iranian religions existed in pre-Islamic Arabia on account of Sasanian military presence along the Persian Gulf and South Arabia and on account of trade routes between the Hejaz and Iraq.

Some Arabs in northeast of the peninsula converted to Zoroastrianism and several Zoroastrian temples were constructed in Najd. Some of the members from the tribe of Banu Tamim had converted to the religion. There is also evidence of existence of Manichaeism in Arabia as several early sources indicate a presence of " zandaqas " in Mecca, although the term could also be interpreted as referring to Mazdakism.

There is evidence for the circulation of Iranian religious ideas in the form of Persian loan words in Quran such as firdaws paradise. Zoroastrianism was also present in Eastern Arabia [] [] [] and Persian-speaking Zoroastarians lived in the region.

It was mainly practiced in Bahrain by Persian settlers. Zorastrianism was also practiced in the Persian-ruled area of modern-day Oman. The religion also existed in Persian-ruled area of modern Yemen. The descendants of Abna , the Persian conquerors of Yemen, were followers of Zorastrianism. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Arabian mythology. List of pre-Islamic Arabian deities. Jewish tribes of Arabia. Fahd notes that the practice of women touching idols as a token of blessing except during menstruation was common to all idols, according to the available report from Ibn Al-Kalbi.

Mircea Eliade argues that Muhammad's knowledge of Christianity "was rather approximative" [] and that references to the triad of God, Jesus and Mary probably reflect the likelihood that Muhammad's information on Christianity came from people who had knowledge of the Monophysite Church of Abyssinia , which was known for extreme veneration of Mary. Hawting , Sidney H. Griffith and Gabriel Reynolds argue that the verses commenting on apparently unorthodox Christian beliefs should be read as an informed, polemically motivated caricature of mainstream Christian doctrine whose goal is to highlight how wrong some of its tenets appear from an Islamic perspective.

The Formation of Islam: Religion and Society in the Near East, Muhammad and the Origins of Islam. Peterson 26 February Muhammad, Prophet of God. Hoyland 11 September Arabia and the Arabs: From the Bronze Age to the Coming of Islam.

No God But God: The Origins, Evolution and Future of Islam. Phipps 1 September A Comparison of the Prophets and Their Teachings. Islam, a Guide for Jews and Christians. A Framework for Inquiry. Daily Life in the Medieval Islamic World.

Gardet, Allah , Encyclopaedia of Islam, ed. History of the Arabs. Encyclopedia of Ancient Deities. A Christian Introduction to World Religions. The Idea of Idolatry and the Emergence of Islam: From Polemic to History. Petra and the Lost Kingdom of the Nabataeans. The Religion of the Nabataeans:

Sources of modern knowledge

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