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He returned to Slonim in He represented Slonim at the Agudat Yisrael assifa as a year old. Rav Avraham was given the mantle of Rebbe in The Birchat Avraham was the father-in-law of the Nesivot Shalom.
Moshe ascends to the top of Har Sinai. On the seventh day Hashem called to Moshe from within the cloud After being "cleansed" by the cloud for six days, he was ushered into the presence of Hashem on the 13th of Sivan.
The first pogrom in Frankfurt on the Main took place, when an incited mob destroyed the Jewish Quarter and massacred most of its Jews al kiddush Hashem , Hy"d. It also records that 24 Jews avoided death by accepting baptism, while under the protection of the city fathers. The kehilla of Worms was destroyed during the War of the Grand Alliance The French forces that captured Worms from Germany promptly destroyed the entire Jewish street including the shul and public buildings and threw all the Jews out of the town.
Shalom Schwartzbard assassinated Ukrainian S. His followers were responsible for pogroms in which 50, Jews lost their lives.
Schwartzbard had fifteen family members killed in Jewish pogroms, and he himself had survived one such attack in during the Russian Revolution. Following the War of Independence, citizens in many Arab countries began harassing their Jewish co-citizens, often times inflicting casualties and substantial property damage. Anti-Jewish riots broke out across the Arab world. Jews were attacked and imprisoned, Jewish property was seized, and most of these centuries-old Jewish communities were forced to disband.
The 5, Jews living in Cairo, Egypt were also repeatedly victimized. A bomb exploded in the Jewish quarter of Cairo, murdering 22 Jews and wounding more than 40 others, Hy"d. In the coming months, more bombings in Cairo killed an additional 50 Jews. In , the Jewish population of Egypt was 75,; the systematic persecution caused most Egyptian Jews to flee, many choosing to move to Israel.
Today, there are virtually no Jews remaining in Egypt. The empty hull of the Israeli submarine Dakar, which disappeared in the Mediterranean on 5 Shevat — Feb, 4, , was discovered in the depths. Father-in-law of the Chacham Tzvi. He served as a rabbinic judge in Vilna at age He fled to Prague due to the Cossacks in , and founded a Yeshiva there, and then returned to Vilna shortly after where he founded another famous Yeshiva. In , he accepted the position of Chief Rav of Yerushalayim.
While in Budapest, his oldest son died suddenly at the age of only Then, while sitting shiva , his only other son, Rav Yehuda Leib, fell ill and lay in critical condition. Rav Ephraim davened that Heaven take him rather than his son. He instructed his son to publish his sefer , then he passed away.
From his earliest years he was special qualities; when he later became Rebbe, no one was surprised. He was succeeded by his only son, Harav Nosson Dovid. As a young child he was known for his outstanding learning capabilities and diligence. Reb Yaakov Meir nevertheless conducted himself humbly, dedicating himself solely to learning.
His other son was Harav Avraham Mordechai. Their son was the Pnei Menachem. Of all his descendants, only one daughter, Rebbetzin Feiga Mintche, and her son, the Pnei Menachem , survived.
He authored Chakal Yitzchak. He, along with most of his followers, perished in the Holocaust, and the dynasty was rebuilt by his grandson, Rav Yaakov Yosef. Author of a commentary on the Sefer HaMitzvot of the Rambam. He acquired most of his Torah knowledge from his grandfather, Rav Moshe. The first pogrom in Frankfurt on the Main took place, when an incited mob destroyed the Jewish Quarter and massacred most of its Jews, Hy"d.
Germany's emperor Maximilian rescinded an order to burn all the seforim found in Cologne and Frankfurt. According to another opinion, he was born on 7 Sivan of that year. The brilliance of the young Chaim was apparent from his earliest childhood. In his youth he studied under the Shaagat Aryeh , who was then Rav of Volozhin.
His diligence and erudition were striking; by the age of twenty-two he had completed the study of Shas with all its commentaries. Rav Chaim was the most prominent student of the Vilna Gaon, who greatly influenced his way of thinking and approach to Torah study. Once, during Shabbat davening , a vicious person inquired of him when the molad would be. The Rav replied that he did not know, adding that it could be checked in the luach. The yeshivah became the prototype and mother of all yeshivot in Eastern Europe that were established during the 19th and 20th centuries.
The Volozhin yeshiva remains the classic model of Lithuanian yeshivas today. The day the cornerstone was laid for Yeshivat Volozhin, Rav Chaim fasted. Reb Chaim set high standards for admission to his yeshivah, insisting on extreme diligence. His talmidim numbered in the hundreds.
Rav Chaim's most famous work was Nefesh HaChaim , a kabbalistic work which emphasizes the importance of Torah study and mitzvah observance for coming close to Hashem. Wrote hagaot on Shulchan Aruch. He married his first cousin, the daughter of Harav Dovid of Makarov, who was a very influential leader of Ukrainian Jewry before its unfortunate destruction.
The Bolsheviks were ascending to power and causing havoc and destruction, forcing the Rebbe to relocate to Riga, Latvia. His young years were very difficult, as he was raised as an orphan of his father since birth.
When he reached the age of bar mitzvah, he no longer had any living grandparents. Shortly thereafter, his mother became ill and later on, yet before his marriage, she passed away. All these obstacles did not hinder his Torah growth. A year later, he was hired to be the Rav in Mezhibuzh, where his father had been Rav. The harshness of the Communist regime and the consequent increased dangers it posed compelled him to leave the Ukraine in and emigrate to the U.
The entire community turned out to bid him farewell and escort him on his way. There, he served as the Rav of the three Mezhibuzher Shuls — Cong. Anshai Mezhibuzh 48 Orchard St. Ahavat Achim at 20th Avenue and 73d Street. Rav Nissim was the oldest son in a family of 14 children.
Later he learned in Yeshivat Marom Shir, where he became close to the Amshinover Rebbe, who suggested that he travel to learn in the yeshivah in Lakewood, under Harav Aharon Kotler. He married a year later on his return to Eretz Yisrael. His first appointment was as rosh yeshiva of Yeshivat Ohel Moed. His first step in reaching out to the secular community was to organize a religious community in Givat Ada near Haifa on behalf of Yeshivat Ohr Somayach.
He became the Rav of the community which numbered families. He then founded a large Torah community in the city of Zichron Yaakov, which included a few hundred families. When he returned to Yerushalayim a few years later, he was appointed the mashgiach in Yeshivat Or Baruch in Bayit Vegan. Harav Yagen would, in turn, offer them an additional stipend for their willingness to begin studies so early in the morning. For 10 years, he occupied a senior position in the Arachim movement, and conducted seminars all over the world.
For many months, prayers were recited for his recovery. During that period Rav Nissim often went to medical centers in Eretz Yisrael and abroad for treatments. He spent the last month of his life in Hadassah Hospital in Yerushalayim. Birth in Charan - B. The accursed Crusaders laid siege to Yerushalayim. As they conquered the city, the Crusaders massacred almost the entire population of Yerushalayim. When it ended, it prompted additional Crusades. In Denmark, article 84 of the new constitution negated discrimination of "any person on the basis of religious grounds.
He was held and tortured in prison and then sent to Kastroma, a prison camp, until his ultimate release on 12 Tammuz. His release was achieved by the intense hishtadlut of chassidim.
Two years later, the Rebbe fled Russia and traveled to America. He was saved and returned to America, where he rebuilt Lubavitcher Chassidut. Israeli forces crossed into Lebanon to destroy PLO bases.
Named "Operation Peace for Galilee," its aim was to drive out the terrorists. A year later, Syria forced Gemayel to renege on the agreement. A total of 1, Jewish lives were lost. In his time, he was seen as the posek hador. Despite being held in such high esteem by all of the Gedolei Hador , Harav Yitzchak wrote his teshuvot and would pasken very humbly. His yeshivah attracted hundreds of bachurim. Harav Yitzchak served as the head of the Vaad Arba Aratzot. His son was Harav Yaakov of Posen, a talmid chacham and a parnas.
Rav Shmuel was named after this grandfather. Harav Moshe, the Chasam Sofer. Kabbalist of Yerushalayim, head of the Kabbalists of Beit El.
Of all his many manuscripts only a small sefer was printed, Tzedek VeShalom. The young Dovid Dov, named after his illustrious grandfather, was endowed with unique talents and a sharp mind. There, he founded a yeshivah and stood at its helm for many years. He used his speaking talents to inspire his fellow Yidden. Harav Dovid Dov kept his regular learning schedule even during those trying times. Subsequently, the ghetto was evacuated and the Yidden were sent to Auschwitz.
After the war they all immigrated to America, where they served as Rabbanim and had children, grandchildren and great-grandchildren who follow in their ways. Rosh Yeshiva of Lucerne Yeshiva in Switzerland. Rav Koppelman was a leading disciple of Rav Shimon Shkop in Grodno, having learnt under him for 18 years.
He was the Rosh Yeshiva of Lucerne from to his petira. The Pope suspends the Portuguese Inquisition due to its severe treatment of Marranos. The ship Restoration arrived in Massachusetts from London, with several Jewish merchants aboard, thus creating the core of the first substantial Jewish settlement in New England. A century earlier, the Puritans of Massachusetts Bay were determined to exclude alien elements from their community, and they hanged four Quakers to prove it.
New Amsterdam governor Peter Stuyvesant cleansed his colony of Lutherans and Quakers, and tried to do the same to Jews. Such episodes were largely confined, however, to the 17th century, and by the time of the Revolutionary War, many Jews had settled in Massachusetts.
It would not be until , however, that the first synagogue was established in Boston. He passed away at a young age. The vast majority of Vorka Chassidim begged Reb Mendel to lead them. Reb Mendel initially refused, but at the behest of the Kotzker Rebbe, Harav Menachem Mendel, with whom he was very close, he accepted the mantle of leadership.
After his marriage he moved to Hornosteipel, in the Ukraine, where he lived for approximately 10 years. He moved back to Galicia and settled in Tarnow, where he began leading Chassidim. Reb Shalom Eliezer was known for his exemplary character and his drive to help Yidden in distress. He had chosen the second option! Reb Shalom Eliezer was sent to various concentration camps. A few weeks later, it became clear that her reason was that serving as a Rav in a large city would disturb him from his learning.
He was later appointed Rav in the small town of Shadawa. He wrote Birchat Yosef and many other seforim. One of the great Torah scholars and Kabbalists of Yerushalayim. When he was thirteen, his parents moved to Eretz Yisrael, and made their home in Balfouria, a small settlement in the Valley of Jezreel. Though the torrential rains only lasted for 40 days and 40 nights, it would be several months before the waters subsided enough for Noah's Teiva to come to rest, and another several months before the dove returned with an olive branch in its beak - a sign that it was safe to exit the Teiva.
As symbolized by the rainbow, Hashem promised never to flood the Earth again. The residents of Beit Achidat Migdal Tzur , who aided the enemies of Klal Yisrael - the Yevanim - were expelled from their city by the Chashmonaim on this date. The event is mentioned as a " Yom Tov " in Megilat Taanit. Jewish insurgent forces captured the fortress of Antonia in Yerushalayim.
This battle marked the outbreak of the Jewish revolt against Rome. Some have this date as 11 Sivan. Born on August 1, in Smyrna Izmir , Turkey, he was a gifted scholar but showed signs of mental instability early in his life, causing unpredictable mood swings from extreme depression to euphoria. Tragically, he eventually became a Catholic priest. He died in in Paris, after spending years in a monastery. Elena Mortara, a great-great-grand-niece of his, continues to campaign for an apology from the Vatican against the canonization of Pius IX who gave the orders to kidnap Mortaro.
At a commencement exercise, the then president of Harvard University, A. Lowell, proposed quotas to limit Jewish college acceptance. Even though he was eventually forced to rescind his anti-Semitic comments, his ideas took hold in academia, and affected the welfare of Jews in universities for decades.
The German ocean liner St. Louis, carrying more than Jewish refugees, was turned away from the Florida coast by U. Spain passed a law granting Jews and Protestants the right of public worship, including permission to mark their places of worship and advertise their religious services.
It had been officially forbidden to practice Judaism in Spain -- though this law had not been enforced for many years before its official abolishment. In , for the first time, a poll showed that the majority of Spanish citizens do not consider themselves believers in Christianity. The son of Reb Asher of Stolin. His father, Harav Asher of Stolin, taught him Torah and helped him develop into an exceptional talmid chacham.
One night, when Reb Aharon was still a small boy, he went to wish his father good night. As for tzidkut — he knew Reb Aharon was a tzaddik.
He was also known as the Mlynover Rebbe and the Freilicher Rebbe the latter a term describing his disposition. Later in his life, he was forced to move to Stolin, several miles away from Karlin, and the dynasty has been known as Karlin-Stolin since then. He was buried in Malinov. He lived exactly 70 years and 17 days the gematria of the word tov.
He succeeded the Alter as Rosh Yeshiva and became very close to his talmid Yechezkel Levenstein, the future mashgiach of Mir and Ponevez. He authored Eretz Tzvi veTeumei Tzviyah. He trained himself not to sleep, often staying up all night to learn. In his answer, vividly recalled by many survivors, he bewailed his inability to intercede for all Hungarian Jewry.
This is precisely what happened, as the train carrying the Makov deportees to the extermination camp was diverted from its course time and again. During the Nazi occupation, Rav Vorhand was arrested on false charges and was treated very harshly in prison. His health had suffered severely, however, and he was persuaded, with great difficulty, to travel to Budapest for treatment. He was shot to death on his way to a synagogue in a Jewish neighborhood in Zurich.
Although it was clear that he had committed suicide, his death would be used by a priest named Benderovski in the nearby town of Zaslow as an opportunity to accuse the Jews of Salvita with murder.
His report to Czar Alexander I, led to the closing of the famous Slavita printing press and the extensive jailing and torture of the Shapiro brothers who ran the press. Though Jewish day schools existed at the time the first full-time day schools were Etz Chaim, founded in , and Rabbi Jacob Joseph School in , the idea was generally rejected by American Jews who saw it as 'parochial' and a step back to the European shtetl.
Rabbi Mendlowitz, however, felt that "afternoon Hebrew schools" were failing to transmit Judaism in a compelling manner to students who arrived tired in the afternoons, and who were constantly subjected to assimilationist influences in American culture.
He set out to create schools that emphasized Jewish studies, without compromising its secular studies program. In recent decades, enrollment in Jewish day schools has thrived: Of the estimated , Jewish school-age children in America, about , are presently enrolled in some Jewish day schools -- more than triple since the s. Many recent studies have shown that giving a child a Jewish day school education is the single greatest hedge against assimilation.
He founded a yeshiva in Lvov and taught there for 42 years and provided the support. Although he was very wealthy, he was extremely humble and taught Torah without receiving any payment. The Maggid promised them a son who would enlighten the entire world. He did so even in the winter when it was necessary to break through the ice of the frozen river and then immerse in freezing water. Because of the poverty of the community, Reb Yisachar Dov could not support himself there and was forced to try his hand at peddling.
However, the attempt caused him great anxiety because he was forced to take away too much time from learning. He moved on to Chmielnik, but the situation there was no better. He moved on to Radoshitz to succeed his recently deceased uncle, Harav Zundel, as Rav.
Rav Yissachar Dov refused, however, to accept the many offers of support he had received. He traveled to Rebbes and other Torah leaders of his day.
Everyone should carefully observe which way his heart draws him, and then choose this path with all his strength. The sefer was published in Jews first began to settle in the town of Mir early in the 17th century, but the town itself is mentioned in records for There were over eight hundred Jews in Mir by The Mir Yeshiva was founded in Reb Yeruchem was born around the year in Luban, Belarus.
He became mashgiach at Mir in , a position he kept for 26 years. At 18 he received his official appointment as Rav of Marosh-Aueviher. They were later taken to Auschwitz. His Divrei Torah were published in a sefer called Zichron Yaakov. Rav Chaim Baruch was killed in Auschwitz with his wife and six children.
He was killed in Auschwitz with his wife. His father, Harav Avraham Mordechai, the son of Harav Yosef, was known as the masmid of Eishishuk, after his hometown. After the war he returned home and learned in Yeshivat Knesset Yisrael in Slabodka. He was soon considered the iluy of the yeshivah. For the next five years, Reb Aharon sat and learned. Childless themselves, his Rebbetzin and he raised several orphans.
He also gave mussar shmuessen. He left no children. Some of his chiddushim on Torah and halachah were published under the title Beit Aharon. The Jewish quarter of Posen burned, while the Anti-Semitic locals watched and plundered. Fifteen Jews were murdered and eighty scrolls were torched, Hy"d. The phenomenon of Jewish hospitals may have been linked to the experience in Europe, where restrictions were placed on the number of Jewish patients admitted to public hospitals, and even in America where quotas were placed on Jewish doctors studying and practicing.
The Jews of Berlin had a small hospital in the 16th century. Jews of Rome had their own hospital in the 17th century. Russian Jews had hospitals prior to World War I. But when the Jews of Bucharest petitioned the government for permission to build a hospital, following the death of a Jew who was denied admission into the city hospital, the petition was denied. Today, Jewish hospitals are found in dozens of major cities including Los Angeles, Cincinnati and Baltimore.
These hospitals are often ranked as tops in their field; for example, Barnes Jewish Hospital in St. Louis is the largest hospital in Missouri, is regarded as one of the nation's top three medical schools, and is ranked as one of America's top 10 hospitals overall. The Battle of Midway began. Three days later, American forces claimed a decisive victory over the Japanese.
To this day there is no universally accepted explanation for the massacre. His father was Rav Yaakov. Fez was a well-known city of Torah, the home of many Gedolei Yisrael, most notably of the Rishonim , including Rif and Rambam.
It was always a city of Torah, with many Rabbanim and yeshivot. Even when, later in life, Rav Yehudah was a recognized talmid chacham , he still sat at the feet of these Gedolim.
He supported his family by working as a smith. It is related that he would open his business in the morning, and when he had earned the sum he needed for the day he would close up shop and go to the beit medrash to continue his learning. He and his friends schemed to cause pain and distress to the Jewish community. They levied heavy taxes on them, which left many impoverished. Often Rabbanim and other communal leaders were imprisoned, and the community was forced to redeem them for exorbitant sums.
Once, Rav Yehudah himself was imprisoned. When the community could not raise the sum that the sultan asked for his ransom, Rav Yehudah was thrown to the lions. When this story became known, Rav Yehudah was considered a tzaddik protected from harm, and a miracle worker. Rav Yehudah left a mark on Moroccan Jewry that continues until today.
Together with his talmid Harav Yaakov Ben-Tzur, also known as the Yaakbetz, he compiled the many minhagim of the kehillot of the Western countries, according to the takanot of the Rabbanim who settled there after the Spanish Expulsion. They became known as Raboteinu Baalei Haminhagim, and are frequently quoted in many halachah sefarim. Rav Yehuda and his beit din established many takanot for the benefit of the community, things that have been implemented in many kehillot today as well — for example, takanot restricting overspending for seudot brit, bar mitzvah or chasuna.
Rav Yehuda wrote many sefarim: Later in life, Rav Shlomo suffered a number of illnesses. Known as the Chofetz Chaim of Yerushalayim, he wrote many monumental sefarim including sefer Olat Tamid- on Tefilah and sefer Mitzvat HaBitachon which was translated into many languages including English titled Faith and Trust. He also wrote Eved Hamelech on the Chumash, and Ikarai Dinim , a summary of the laws of loshon hora with analysis. According to Seder Olam , the unfortunate incident of Kivrot Hataavah ended as all those who ate the slav died over a period of thirty days.
According to Talmud Taanit 29a, this occured on 22 Sivan. Jews were burned al kiddush Hashem in Blois, France, as a result of the first blood-libel in Europe. Rabbeinu Tam and other contemporary Rishonlm declared this date a fast day to mark the event.
The following Rabbanim were killed al kiddush Hashem on that day: Another 31 men and 17 women were killed. It is well known that the Tosefot Yom Tov attributed the massacres to talking in shul.
Others put the number at , Among the Rabbanim who were killed al kiddush Hashem during that massacre were: Harav Yitzchak of Polnai: Selichot are recited in some communities. The rampaging Cossacks, were led by Bogdan Chmielnicki the Jewish pronunciation is Chelminitzki , Chmielnicki's hatred of Jews was inflamed from the time he planned a revolution against the Polish government; a Jew overheard and reported the plot, and Chmielnicki was led to prison in chains and sentenced to death for treason.
But before the verdict could be carried out, the king of Poland died. Chmielnicki escaped and led the Cossacks to defeat the Polish army, attacking and murdering Jews at every opportunity.
Hundreds of Jewish communities were destroyed by the Cossack hordes, and approximately , Jews were murdered. It is well known that the Tosefot Yom Tov attributed the massacres to talking in Shul.
Elegies " Kinot " written by great rabbis of the time compare this tragic epoch to the destruction of the Beit HaMikdash. This would be the most bitter time for Polish Jewry for several centuries The American Jewish Congress was formed.
The majority of Israel's forces withdrew in Israel still holds an eight-mile-wide security zone in southern Lebanon in order to protect Israeli towns from the continuing terrorist attacks launched from Lebanon. When he was still a child, his father, Harav Shalom Zelig, took him along to the court of the Baal Shem Tov, who blessed him to become a leader in Klal Yisrael. He was a talmid of the Maggid of Mezhritch, and close with Harav Yechiel Michel, the Zlotchover Maggid, who said that he had 60 talmidim who were tzaddikim , but the greatest was Reb Tzvi Hirsh, whom Eliyahu Hanavi often visited.
Following in the ways of his Rebbe, Reb Tzvi Hirsh became a maggid, traveling from town to town spreading the derech hachassidut. The first city where he served as maggid was Dolina; later he settled in Nadvorna, after which he is known. Many came to learn from him and his avodat Hashem. Reb Tzvi Hirsh wrote down his divrei Torah and published some of them, but without his name. He was niftar on 20 Sivan, and buried in Nadvorna. Both were later buried near their father in Nadvorna. At age 70, Rav Chaim Mordecai was disturbed that he did not have a daughter.
After much discussion, he decided to marry a younger woman, who could bear him daughters. Sure enough, his wife bore him a daughter, Luna, who was wed to Rav Ezra Suede.
He received semichah from his uncle Harav Yitzchak of Skver. Harav Zev was known from his youth as a unique gaon, and indeed he left behind many manuscripts that exemplified his geonus.
In addition, many of his chiddushim were published in various kovtzim , some without his name. After the petirah of his father, he, together with his brothers, accepted the joint mantle of admorus. The brothers led the growing flock of Rachmastrivka with unique unity. During his last year in Yerushalayim, Harav Zev was struck with a serious illness.
On 20 Sivan, he returned his pure neshamah to its Creator. He was buried in the Rachmastrivka ohel on Har Hazeitim. The Head Rav of Tunisia. He was born in Warsaw, and made aliyah with his family at the age of seven. He became Rebbe upon the passing of his father, the Imrei Eish. He led his Chassidim for many years from his beit medrash in Tel Aviv, and in , he moved to a new location in Bnei Brak.
He was buried next to the kever of his father at Har Hazeitim. The tradition of composing and singing niggunim was started by the second Modzitzer rebbe, known as the Zvoliner Rebbe, Rav Shmuel Eliyahu. He served for 43 years on the Prague Beit Din. According to Seder Olam , Miriam HaNeviah was afflicted with the skin malady, tzaraat , after speaking lashon hara about her brother Moshe Rabbeinu. In his great humility, Moshe then prayed for Miriam to be healed.
Hashem instructed that she be quarantined outside the machaneh camp for seven days. In testimony to their great love for Miriam, Klal Yisrael waited during this period before journeying onward, and only afterward did Klal Yisrael continue on its travels.
Others site tomorrow 21 Sivan or 22 or 23 Sivan as the date Miriam was afflicted with tzaraat. See Talmud Taanit 29a.
According to Seder Olam , today marked the end of the unfortunate incident of Kivrot Hataavah in which all those who ate the slav bird died over a period of 30 days. The Muslim conqueror of Constantinople granted equal rights to Jews and other non-Muslims. This created a haven for many Jews who would be forced out of Spain gerush Sfarad 39 years later, during the Spanish Inquisition. Hashem provides the refuah before the makkah. Harvard University created a professorship of Hebrew and Oriental languages, The early rectors of American universities were religious Protestants who viewed the Bible as a guide to personal and political life.
The Etzel ship Altalena, carrying new immigrants and ammunition to Eretz Yisroel , is sunk by Haganah soldiers, killing In , his father moved the family to Strizhov, a Central Galician town on the banks of the Wisloka River, settled by Jews since the sixteenth century.
At the age of fourteen, Rav Shlomo they were married. In about , he became a devoted follower of Rav Chaim of Sanz; the two eventually became mechutanim. In , the Jews of Munkatch, a large and influential kehilla in Hungary, now in the Ukraine , appealed to Rav Shlomo to come and serve as their rav. He served as the Head of the Beit Din of Teverya. He and his Rebbetzen had 5 daughters. Rav Dovid Munish was a staunch chasid of Belz.
In , he succeeded his father as Rav in Strisov, when his father became Rav in Podvolotchisk. Thus, two years later, the community welcomed Rav Dovid Munish as de facto Rav, a position that was formalized in , with the petira of Rav Yehoshua Heshel.
Despite all this, Reb Dovid Menachem Munish saw his yeshivah as his crowning achievement, and he gave it most of his time and energy. Doctors recommended that he travel to the clinic in Lausanne, Switzerland, where he was confined to bed and treated for two years.
Two days later, he was buried in Tarnopol next to his ancestors. A few years later, the entire community of Tarnopol was destroyed by the Nazis. When a lone survivor, Mr. Ochs, came to record its history, he discovered that of all the gravestones in the cemetery, the only one that had remained standing was that of the Chavatzelet Hasharon.
Young Shimon was diligent and displayed supreme talent. Before his bar mitzvah he had already completed masechet Beitzah 60 times! In he joined his father at the Congress of Jewish Communities in Hugary.
Harav Shimon married the daughter of Harav Yitzchak Fried of Kleinvardein, but his Rebbetzin passed away, childless, at a young age. He was appointed Rav of Erloi in He later remarried, and lived in Russia for a while. He also had four daughters.
In Erlau he was also the Rosh Yeshivah, delivering intricate shiurim to the bachurim , and giving several daily shiurim to the townspeople. In old age, when his vision failed, someone would read the text for him and he would expound on it, continuing to deliver his dynamic shiurim as before. He greatly honored his grandfathers. At such times he would rise in respect. Even though the salary that he earned in Erlau was meager, he refused more prominent positions, such as the Rabbanut of Budapest and Ungvar.
His Rebbetzin supported her illustrious husband with all her resources. The Rav once mentioned that he did not have enough money to print the sefarim of his grandfather, the Chatam Sofer. The Rebbetzin immediately went out and sold all her jewelry. With great humility, he refused to put his name on his sefarim, printing them anonymously.
He added the following to every page: Nothing could inspire him with simchah like davening, learning, or sitting in the sukkah. Along with 3, of his fellow Jews, Rav Shimon was transferred from the Erlau Ghetto to Auschwitz, where the year-old Rav was viciously sent in his wheelchair to the gas chambers.
Yiddish is a colloquial mixture of German and Hebrew, and came to be the spoken language of much of European Jewry. Following the influx of Jewish immigrants to America, Yiddish was increasingly heard on the streets of New York, and by New York alone had seven daily newspapers printed in Yiddish. According to the U. Today, Yiddish words like chutzpah, klutz, schmaltz and schlep have crept into mainstream English usage.
Born in Berlin to Harav Naftali Hirsh. Reb David was among the first to devote himself to the study of Talmud Yerushalmi, which had been largely neglected.
It is found on the outer side of the gemara page. His other notes on the Yerushalmi, found at the bottom of the page, called Shiyarei Korban , provide solutions to inaccuracies in the text. Rav of Izmir, Turkey, author of Shem Shlomo. He was known as the elder Rebbe of his generation. Harav Avraham Tzvi was the scion of an illustrious family. He was a sixth-generation descendant of the Panim Meirot and a descendant of the Arizal.
During the Holocaust, Reb Yitzchak Shlomo endured untold hardships in numerous labor camps. The Nazis deported the Ungar family to the Shopron ghetto near the Hungarian border. There, the father and 5 younger children were murdered, Hy"d. All five elder brothers survived.
Harav Yitzchak Shlomo also established a kollel for avreichim who studied halachah under his guidance. In , he founded the Chug Chasam Sofer kashrut organization. He established the yeshiva Machaneh Avraham in He was survived by his Rebbetzin, his brother, Harav Yechiel Michel Ungar, the Pupa Dayan; Harav Yeshayah Ungar, gabbai of the Skverer Rebbe, and thousands of talmidim and admirers the world over who will long remember him.
Reb Nachum prized his great-grandson and watched over him carefully. From his early youth he was divorced from all worldly matters, taking an interest in nothing but Torah. He followed this path throughout his life, even when he was leading Chassidim.
Give him the money. Reb Mottel was asked to succeed his father. He was known for his saintliness and piety through which he achieved salvation for hundreds of people — but not for himself.
Tragically, it was decreed otherwise. After his marriage, he took a position as Ram in Yeshivat Tiferet Yisrael. He was also a member of the Moetzet Gedolei HaTorah. Once a fast day, Megillat Taanit 3. The Holy Land split into two kingdoms: As a substitute, he introduced the worship of two idols, in the form of golden calves, which he enshrined on the northern and southern boundaries of his realm.
These barricades remained in place for years, until Hosea ben Elah , the last king of the Northern Kingdom, had them removed on the 15th of Av of B. By then, the ten tribes residing there were already being expelled from the land in a series of invasions by various Assyrian and Babylonian kings.
The last of these occurred in B. These peoples -- later known as the "Samarians" -- assumed a form of Judaism as their religion, but were never accepted as such by the Jewish people; they subsequently built their own temple on Mount Gerizzim and became bitter enemies of the Jews. The "Ten Lost Tribes of Israel" were never heard from again, and await the coming of Moshiach to be reunited with the Jewish people.
Even after Haman was hanged on the 17th of Nissan B. Queen Esther pleaded with King Achashveirosh to annul the decree, but Achashveirosh insisted that "a writ that has been written in the king's name, and sealed with the king's seal, cannot be returned. The riots spread throughout the country. Jews of Posen, Poland were saved from a mob set to avenge the murder of a soldier. The Russian government had told thousands of Jewish refugees in Eastern Galicia that they could register as Russian citizens.
On the night of the 23rd of Sivan, the KGB swooped down on Lemberg and arrested all those who had refused Russian citizenship. The Jews were taken to the train station and put on trains to Siberia. The New York State board of education had approved the following word "nondenominational prayer" for recitation each morning in public schools: Although reciting the prayer was optional for each student, a group of parents objected, and the case went all the way to the Supreme Court.
Organizations such as the American Jewish Congress supported the ban -- due to centuries of religious persecution, Jews tend to oppose government involvement in religion.
One of the most ominous reactions came from the Jesuit publication, America, which warned Jews that their involvement in these cases could incite anti-Semitism in American society. The majority Supreme Court opinion held that "classroom invocation of God's blessings Harav Yaakov was born in Poland. His father was Harav Yitzchak Halevi. His surname, Pollack, is derived from the fact that he was a Polish native.
In his youth he left home and traveled to Nuremburg, Germany, where he studied under Harav Yaakov Margulies. After spending time in Germany, he traveled to Prague, the capital of Bohemia, where he eventually married the daughter of Harav Moshe Fishelis. Rav Yaakov was forced to flee to Poland, and settled in Cracow. At that time, Poland was barren of Torah and yeshivot, but persecution from local gentiles was rampant. He is considered the father or Torah scholarship and rabbinic authority in Poland as he initiated a Torah revolution in Poland that lasted virtually up to World War II.
His main disciple was Rav Shalom Shachna , who headed the yeshiva in Lublin for over 40 years. The remainder of his life is shrouded in mystery. Young Yehudah stood out in his class for his diligence and his asceticism, learning Torah with fervor.
When Rav Yehoshua Falk realized his potential, he drew him close, literally making him a member of his household. He later settled in Serdehaly where he served as Rav despite his young age.
He was there for four years, and then took the position of Rav in Seminetz. He also established a yeshivah. Eventually, he returned to Serdehaly. He served as Rav of Serdehaly from to , where he founded a large Yeshiva.
Rav Yehuda, together with the Chasam Sofer, combated the Haskalah as the movement tried to undermine authentic Judaism. He was eighty-nine years old. He served as Rav in Chislavichi from till He learned Beitza and Rosh Hashanah over times memorized over 6 months when he was threatened by blindness. Head of the Sochatchov Kollel. It was believed that the march would be disruptive, and the city refused to allow it. The American Civil Liberties Union came to the Nazis' support, and in a high court upheld the Nazis' right to march, on the grounds that the public display of the Nazi flag is a constitutionally protected free expression.
After winning the court battle, the Nazis decided to march in Chicago's Marquette Park instead. In , a Holocaust Monument and Museum was opened in Skokie.
On the night of its dedication, the monument was desecrated with swastikas. His father named him after the Yehudi Hakadosh of Peshischa. His sefer was entirely printed by the author over the course of 11 years. There was a sudden cloud burst of heavy rain, which resulted in a sudden flash flood in which he drowned. Born in Tserkov, Ukraine, he was the first son in a family of nine girls.
His father was a Rizhiner chasid who frequented the court of the Sadigor Rebbe. He became Oberkantor chief cantor in Pressburg, Hungary, at the age of He moved his young family to Hamburg, Germany, five years later. In , he moved to New York to become chazan at Ohab Zedek. He soon developed an enormous reputation among Jews and non-Jews alike, the New York Times including an article about him in May In an obituary for Rosenblatt, the New York Times noted, "He was so well known in this country that letters from Europe addressed to 'Yossele Rosenblatt, America,' reached him promptly.
Rav Shurin served as a columnist for the Forward for over 60 years. Yahrtzeit of three of the Asara 10 Harugei Malchut: He began to rule twenty years before the destruction of the Second Beit HaMikdash: The Roman Caesar sentenced him to death for the crime of teaching Torah. A taanit tzaddikim was decreed on this date to mark this tragic event as mentioned in Megillat Taaanit and Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim This day was observed as a fast day for many years.
The Jews were falsely accused of a ritual murder. A crowd stormed the synagogue where the Jews had gathered. As usual the threat was baptism or death. The Jewish quarter including the synagogue was razed, many Jews were tortured and killed.
At the border the following day, trumpets blared and a prayer was said as their feet touched holy soil. Per orders of Heinrich Himmler, the Gestapo completely destroyed the village of Lidice, Czechoslovakia, just north-west of Prague, in retaliation for the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich, a Nazi officer. All men over 16 years of age were murdered on the spot; the rest of the population were sent to concentration camps where many women and nearly all the children were killed.
Once a fast day, Shulchan Aruch, Orach Chaim A separate edition, the Babylonian Talmud, Talmud Bavli , was more carefully edited, as Babylonian Jewry was outside the Roman Empire and thus not subject to the ongoing persecutions.
The Babylonian Talmud is the edition most widely studied today. The Yerushalmi Talmud is much shorter and more difficult to decipher, and it suffers from a dearth of authentic commentaries. He was great in Torah as well his deeds of tzedakah and chesed.
It is found on the outer side of the page. His father-in-law supported him for the first few years of his marriage. Later, he needed to seek a rabbinic position. He invited Harav Yitzchak of Vorka to serve as sandak at the brit. After a short and warm conversation, Reb Berish did not return home; instead, he traveled with Reb Yitzchak to Vorka, becoming a very close Chassid of his. Some people tried to cause a split between the Chechenover Rav and his son, Reb Berish, by claiming that due to his interest in Chassidut, he had slacked off in his Torah learning.
Reb Avraham urgently summoned his son home. When he arrived, they began a long Torah discussion, talking in deep pilpul. He is a serious masmid , and sharp in his learning. This was during the lifetime of his father, Rav Avraham Chechenover. Reb Dov Berish was weak all his life, but disregarded his own body, expounding his divrei Torah at times literally with mesirut nefesh.
He said very lengthy divrei Torah , during the week, too, and not just on Shabbat and Yamim Tovim. Reb Chaim was known as an outstanding gaon , especially in the field of halachah.
He was later appointed Rav in Budapest. Rav Moshe Menachem succeeded his father in Toltchin un , but left the Ukraine in , crossing the southern border into Moldavia to escape persecution. He emigrated to the United States the following year and settled in Philadelphia. He was also a Talmid of the Mir in Europe. Then his father took him to Vilna, from where he fled to Japan with many other bachurim and joined up with the Mir Yeshivah under Harav Chaim Shmulevitz, zt"l.
It was here, under the trying circumstances in Japan during the war, that Reb Reuven grew in Torah. Reb Reuven once said that the Gemara he learned in Shanghai is what he remembers best because of the amount of time and effort spent on it. After the war Reb Reuven immigrated to Eretz Yisrael. He began disseminating Torah at a relatively young age.
He wrote many of his chiddushim on a number of masechtot under the name Bein Hamishpesayim. His father named him Baruch after three holy tzaddikim: He was named Shimon after his great-grandfather, and after his maternal grandfather, Shimon Alter. Later he went to learn in Yeshivat Chachmei Lublin. It was during this time that Harav Baruch Shimon received a draft notice from the Polish army.
For a period of five months he hid in a tiny village. During that entire time he did not stop learning, later commenting on the tremendous amount he covered during that period. The Russians caught him and threw him into prison for a year and then sent him to Siberia for another year. Upon his arrival in Eretz Yisrael, he decided not to assume any Rabbinical position but rather to serve Hashem in solitude. HaRav Mordechai Tzemach Eliyahu, zt"l, He was known to reach out to all Jews in Israel and abroad , often speaking to secular crowds in moshavim and kibbutzim, giving them a taste of Torah.
Born in Volozhin to his year old father and his second wife, he learned in the yeshiva in Rameilles under Rav Shlomo Heiman, whom he considered his rebbi muvhak. In , he and his mother moved to Eretz Yisroel, and he continued his learning in the Chevron Yeshiva. He also delivered a nightly for baalei batim in the Chazon Ish Beit Midrash; the shiur also continued until his final day.
He also published Darchei Chaim and Imrei Daat. He openend a kollel for Seder Taharot; eventually ten branches opened throughout the country. The Jewish community of Berne, Switzerland forfeited all financial claims against non-Jews, and then were expelled from the country. The Taz established the custom that the community should fast half a day and recite special Selichot composed for the occasion. After chatzot midday , all were to celebrate with a festive meal, akin to Purim. The Inquisitor of Ancona, Italy decreed that Jews may not reside in any municipality in Italy that hadn't established a ghetto.
The loss here saved the Jews in Palestine from certain death. Under the leadership of General Erwin Rommel, the Nazis threatened to annihilate the Jewish community living in Israel.
So great was the threat that the Jewish Agency went about destroying its records, and rabbis distributed thousands of burial shrouds throughout the country. Upon arriving on the shores of Tel Aviv, he proudly proclaimed: Rommel's troops do not deter me. Even if I am able to spread Torah learning for only a few days, that in itself would be of eternal significance.
Although he was the youngest of the brothers, Reb Avraham Yehoshua Heshel was the first to pass away. He was buried in the Mogelnitza ohel in the Warsaw cemetery, but although the cemetery has been rehabilitated in recent years, his matzeivah has not been found. He was succeeded by his son Harav Avi Ezri Zelig, named after his paternal great-grandfather, the father of his grandfather Reb Chaim Meir. Already in his youth, Reb Yehoshua displayed an intense thirst for Torah.
For six years he slept on hard wooden benches and subsisted on meager amounts of food. After 10 years, his father-in-law was unable to continue his support, and Reb Yehoshua planned to work as a milkman. But Heaven destined otherwise.
Reb Yehoshua accepted the offer, since by then Magendorf did not have sufficient resources to accommodate a large yeshivah. With his move to Galanta, his yeshivah grew amazingly. Remarkably, a special order was received to take the Rav off the train headed to Auschwitz, but the Rav refused to leave his flock. During the hellish journey to that death camp, the Galanta Rav appeared unusually calm.
The Romans stormed the Samaritan stronghold on Har Gerizim and killed 11, people. The Jews of Florence, Italy celebrate "Purim" in memory of their escape from a massacre. The Germans shot Jews when they occupied Beresteczko, Ukraine.
Later in the day, in Lithuania, Fascists carried out a pogrom and killed many Jews in Kaunas. Ogunquit Museum of American Art. Visitors can learn about what happens to lobsters before they arrive on a plate, see baby lobsters, listen to local lobstermen, explore the saltwater marsh, and get their hands on various sea creatures such as urchins, sea cucumbers, and horseshoe crabs. The Mount Desert Oceanarium operates one of the last lobster hatcheries in the world.
There is an informative minute presentation at the hatchery, after which the visitors can see how the lobsters are raised from eggs until they reach the stage at which they can survive on their own in the wild. In the Lobster Museum, visitors can see a retired lobster boat and various tools of the trade.
After the visit to the museum, visitors are invited to take a 1. The Maine Maritime Museum , previously known as the Bath Marine Museum, celebrates Maine's maritime heritage and culture and the role of Maine in maritime history.
Its exhibits cover more than years of ship-building history in Bath. It is located on the banks of the Kennebec River in Bath and besides exhibits offers activities for all ages. The museum occupies a acre campus with the only whole historic U. There is a working boat shop, which demonstrates traditional wooden boatbuilding and keeps the tradition alive. A part of the museum visit is a daily lighthouse cruise or a trolley tour.
You can visit the life-size sculpture of the schooner Wyoming, the largest of its kind in New England. You can also tour the Victorian Donnell House, listen to the story of America's last clipper ship while visiting its remains, have a picnic by the river while the kids roam around a pirate ship, and do so much more. Located in Kennebunkport, Maine, the Seashore Trolley Museum is the oldest and largest mass transit vehicle museum in the world.
Drive-in Theaters in Maine Photo: The first lighthouse on the site was made of wood but had to be rebuilt in , when the new foot-tall rubblestone structure was made. It was equipped with a third-order Fresnel lens and given its red and white stripes, influenced by Canadian lighthouses, where such coloring is common to stand out against the snow.
The lighthouse was automated in It is designed to be similar to a Japanese stroll garden, with gravel paths that are raked to give the impression of flowing water. The garden is home to 86 bird species. While the best time to see the azaleas in full bloom is between mid-May and mid-June, there is beauty at any time of the year.
A flowering cherry tree marks the beginning of the season in mid-May, while Japanese iris, rosebay rhododendron, smoke bush, and the sweet fragrant azalea bloom in July.
August brings water lilies, and September and October herald the explosion of fall colors. This long-term resident of Northeast Harbor, who had financial support from John D. Rockefeller and special input from Beatrix Farrand, built the garden in the English style with a clear coastal Maine influence, so that it incorporates the character of rugged Maine coast.
The two sides of the garden are lined with an abundant variety of annuals and perennials. There is an open observation pavilion at the top of an incline overlooking the main garden, which flows down the slope to a shallow reflecting pool at the bottom.
Thuya Lodge was completed by Joseph H. Curtis, a Boston-based landscape architect and summer resident of the island. He designed the orchard garden around the lodge. It is made of wood on two and a half stories, with clapboard siding and a hip roof. It has four brick chimneys and gabled dormers and it was originally owned by a merchant from Portsmouth. The house has changed hands many times since then, but has fortunately survived almost intact, with very few alterations.
It is now a well-preserved historical house museum owned by Historic New England. It is open for tours from June to October. You can also spot barred owls, ruffed grouse, and all sorts of songbirds. The center was founded by local horticulturist Mary Ellen Ross in Her goal was to create a sanctuary and a place where people can study horticulture and enjoy nature.
The center offers a range of special events such as lectures, discussions, classes, and workshops. The fort is known for its many unique architectural features and its cannon batteries have seen quite some action. Fort Knox was established in to defend the Penobscot River valley from future British naval attacks.
They were mostly volunteers in training before going to active posts. It is one of the last summer theatres from the straw-hat circuit — theatres that only produce during the summer. It produces five or more musicals every season, between mid-May and mid-October, with shows from Tuesday to Sunday. Throughout the years, Ogunquit audiences have had the opportunity to enjoy some of the brightest stars as well as professional actors in Broadway's best shows.
The playhouse has a rich theatre program for small children as well as high school ages, offering them the opportunity to learn about all the aspects of theater. With the children's theater program and one or more kid-friendly performances every year, students are able to see Broadway-quality shows and meet the actors backstage in a professional theater close to home.
The theatre is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The historic house has been preserved with estate furnishings and is now a house museum operated by the Maine Historical Society. It was the first dwelling in Portland built completely out of bricks and has two floors and a pitched roof.
Wadsworth raised ten children here. His grandson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, moved into the house with his parents when he was eight months old and lived in it for the next 35 years. The family added the third story in The last family member to live here was Anne Longfellow Pierce, who pretty much preserved the house as it was in Peleg Wadsworth's time and who was famous among the neighbors for growing oranges in the house window.
She left the house to the Maine Historical Society upon her death, and the society opened the house to the public soon after. The farm is the former site of the Pineland Hospital and Training Center, which operated from to as the Maine School for the Feeble Minded and was later renamed.
As a working farm, it was regarded as a model for the care and treatment of the mentally handicapped. In , the farm was purchased and completely renovated by the Libra Foundation from Portland. Today, Pineland is used mostly for public recreation. There are about Pineland is also used for orienteering competitions and championships as well as corporate meetings, weddings, retreats, picnics, and so on. The village was established in and today consists of 17 historic buildings that date from the s through the s.
The Shakers, a religious group that branched out from the Quakers, came to the New World from England looking for religious freedom. There are today only four Shakers left. The entire property was declared a National Historic Landmark.